Get Perfect Laminate Flooring With A Professional Sales And Flooring Contractor Company

How to clean and maintain laminate floors

If your floors could talk, they might very well cry out for a thorough cleaning. Laminate and wood flooring is often able to conceal dirt so it isn’t visible—how disgusting! Now is the time to once and for all figure out how to clean, maintain, protect, and restore your floors the right way.


The ugly truth with both laminate and wood floors is they can look perfectly clean, despite actually being filthy. Try this simple trick of grabbing a white paper towel or dish rag, wetting it slightly (with an emphasis on the word slightly because moisture is terrible for craftsman wood). Wipe the damp cloth across the floor and see how dark the white area has become. Bacteria tends to grow like crazy on neglected surfaces, with germs seeping into the crevices. Trust us, your floors are typically much dirtier—and less sanitary—than you think.


Knowing what to do in order to properly clean and maintain floors is tough. More importantly, consider what not to do. If going the DIY route, it’s very important you don’t use steam cleaners on the wooden floors in your home. Steam cleaners are great for tile or even vinyl, but when water soaks into the wood grain, it causes discoloration and expansion in the wood. However, using a damp mop is fine, but the use of vinegar is strongly discouraged, as this will significantly dull the finish over time.

The most important thing you can do is sweep or vacuum your wood floors on a regular basis, since this is a great way to get rid of dust.

How to clean laminate flooring

To clean laminate floors simply wipe, vacuum or sweep them with a soft broom or microfiber mop on a daily basis. Once a week, use a damp mop or cloth with warm water and a mild cleaner for a more intense clean. Make sure that you don’t use a wet mop, as large amounts of water can damage your laminate and cause it to warp over time. If you’ve just purchased new laminate floors, you should follow the manufacturer’s instructions on how to clean them.

Tips for cleaning stains on your laminate flooring

  • Mop up spills as they occur. Liquids left to stand on laminate floors can cause stains and more severe damage.
  • Remove stains by rubbing them with a dry cloth moistened with a gentle cleaning agent. Never spray a cleaning product directly onto the floor.
  • Remove rubber, plastic and heel marks by rubbing with a dry cloth and acetone.
  • Remove shoe polish, paint and ink with a cloth soaked in acetone, paint thinner or vinegar essence.
  • Remove candle wax and chewing-gum, once hardened, with a blunt plastic scraper.

How to maintain?

Apart from the cleanliness of the laminated floor, maintenance is also one of the important things to make your floor new and adorable.

  • To remove the spillage such as tar, oil paint and various others from the floor, you can use nail polish remover. By removing the spillage from the homemade natural cleaners, your floor will get damage.
  • If there is any stubborn present on your floor, then it can also be removed with the help of a nail polish remover.
  • To remove the harsh substances such as wax or chewing gum, then you can use ice. After removing them with the help of ice, do not leave it as ice is made up of water, so it can wet your laminated flooring. To avoid this, scrape your flooring with a plastic scarper including an expired credit card. But be careful while scraping that your surface will not get any scratch.
  • Ignore too much cleaner, clean your floor with the help of soft cloths or dry mop of various other things that we have mentioned above.
  • Do not use soap on your floor because soap will dull the finish and shine of your floor. So ignore the using of soap.

Restoring Laminate Floors, And Making It Look Great

For a laminate floor to restore its amazing and shiny look, you’ll need to sacrifice a few minutes and buff it dry. This is where you make use of an absorbent mopping head. A perfect example is a cloth diaper or a microfiber cleaning cloth. They make the best buffing rags. Protect the laminate floor from UV rays, which may bring about fading of the floor. All you need to do is install protective window coverings. Also, rearrange your furniture and rugs in a periodic manner. This lets your laminate floor age evenly. Invest in guest rags, which should be placed at the front door. This encourages guests to wipe their feet off, thus reducing chances of walking across the laminate floor with damaging and corrosive small substances. You can make it a habit of using rubber stoppers and runners at the bottom of the furniture. This helps prevent the laminate floor from scratches.

How To Make Laminate Floor Shine

Eventually, you’ll have your floors looking great, but you’ll want to give them a great little shine too.

In order to make this happen, you’ll want to put away your lightweight vacuum and reach for your cloth mop! You will also want to grab some vinegar and mop-on floor wax.

You’ll first want to begin by removing the dirt and dust from your floors. Once you’ve gotten them free of debris, you’ll want to begin removing any residue that has attached itself to your laminate floors.

You will want to do this, by using the vinegar. Through repeated cleaning with the vinegar, you will eventually be able to uncover the shine that has been hidden, by dirt and residue.

Once you’ve gotten this completed, you will want to top it off, with the mop and wax. Make sure that you take your time and generously spread the wax thoroughly on your floors. This will help to make your laminate floors shine bright, as if they’re brand new!

Tips For Making Your First Dance Your Favorite Wedding Videographer

Things That Your Wedding Video Should Have Included

Your wedding day is going to be one that you will want to remember. Unfortunately, due to too much champagne, and an obligation to talk to every one of your guests, sometimes your special day can pass in a haze.

For all the planning you’ve done you deserve a chance to live it over again and witness the enjoyment of your guests that you may have missed the first time around or to share the day with those who couldn’t make it.

This is why a wedding video commemorating the day is a must.

The best advice is often the simplest:

There is no such thing as a standard video and every couple has different expectations, so establish yours with your videographer.

Make sure that you set aside time before the big day to meet with the crew. You want to establish moments that are important to you, and you really want the day to be as hassle free as possible … you also want to make sure that they get your good side.

When hiring a videographer and choosing the style and type of package that you want, some things you want to consider are:

  • Find out the experience of the person that will cover your event.

Have they been to the venues, locations that you will have your affair? Are the familiar with the challenges that may come up on your wedding day. Rules, restrictions as to where they will be able to load, unload, shoot and capture your ceremony and reception. If a certain area is being occupied or used the same time you are can they adjust their shooting , exposure and schedule to get quality and creative footage to work with.

  • Do they have backup equipment?

Not just the camera: lighting, sound, stability devices, wires and hookups. Basically everything duplicated if for some reason something goes wrong there will be back up. When I cover an event I have the primary camera on a tripod/monopod and my secondary is usually within arms reach, at worst in the same room.

  • Are they prepared to deliver high quality video and sound?

Both are equally important to relive the special moments and depend on each other to tell your story. NJ Best Video shoots in broadcast quality HD format. Both cameras primary and backup are identical cameras so there will be no drop-off in quality. The external microphone, not the built in camera mic which is inferior to most external microphones. For projects where there is a key speaker, in a wedding it will be bride/groom and priest, there is a lavaliere mic which is highly sensitive and able to pick up any sound within say 5-10 feet. For events where a band or DJ is used I always set up a wireless feed so your get one channel of sound directly from the sound board. The sound is clear no matter which way the camera is facing or how far away. Now you have 2 sources of audio with the direct sound and the ambiance and emotion of the event.

  • Do their video packages include a Chaptered DVD?

Anything above the Basic, raw footage package should have this.

The old days of fast forwarding or jet searching to a point on the VHS tape is long gone. Each DVD has a main menu to start of your chaptered DVD. A creative icon, usually a photo or footage that was captured on your day will lead you exactly to the spot for easy access. If you have friends over and just want to show them the vows, first dance and cake cutting, you simply click on the respective icon and it is right there in front of you.

  • Will you receive Unedited Footage?

Some, not all, include this feature. I tend to shoot too much footage, so I have been told. I would rather capture something and not use it, rather than overlook something and regret it! We carefully choose the footage for the final production to allow it to flow creatively and consistently but also don’t want to overlook some of the footage which also were part of the day. Many people refer to this as the blooper reel.

  • The Recap, also known as the flashback, summary, trailer, etc.

This is basically a short video, teaser as to what your wedding day was like edited down to a few minutes. Accompanied with music, video and film effects, the most creative and important shots, this is usually one of the most popular features of the final production that can be shown to friends and family and not take up a lot of time.

  • Do they work with a backup videographer?

It’s happened only once, but the unexpected does come up. Personal illness, death in the family. What would I do? Call someone who belongs to my pool of videographers who is experienced, dependable, punctual, creative and trustworthy to give you what you paid for and expected when you hired NJ Best Video to capture your special day.

10 Wedding Moment You Will Watch Again, And Again, And Again:


First look of the groomsmen in their suits is a must; make sure that the area is tidy first. Have the Mother of the Groom pin the boutonniere on her son, and then have the groom pin it on his groomsmen.


Half the fun of the day is the bride surrounding herself with her maids while they get all glammed up. Choose somewhere with lots of natural light and pop a bottle of champagne to settle the nerves.

Get the Maid of Honor to help put the dress on the bride and don’t forget the Mother of the Bride, she can put the finishing touches on with the veil.  Watch out, there will be tears!

Catch the moment that the Father of the Bride gets the first look at his daughter in her wedding dress, it will be one to treasure.


With the help of the Father of the Bride and the bridesmaids, this is a music soaring magic moment. It’s finally here!


These people were chosen to be a part of the wedding party for a reason, make sure that the video reflects their importance.


You won’t want to miss the moment that the groom sets his sights on his beautiful bride at the end of the aisle. This is often the most special moment captured. Tissues, where’s the tissues?


Whether its smiles or tears of joy, the bride’s reaction as she walks up the aisle is always priceless.


Film the moment when the father lifts the veil and gives his daughter away.


These words are going to bring tears to your eyes no matter how many times you watch it.


First kiss as husband and wife. ‘Nuff said.


Watching guests celebrate your union with confetti, showers of flowers or just heartfelt well wishes is a beautiful moment to experience again.

Which Style Should You Choose?

The Classic Style

If you’re working with a couple that would like something more traditional, then this is the style they may be referring to. Some couples prefer to have the entire ceremony captured in a continuous video.

With this style comes challenges in both shooting and editing. If they’d like their entire ceremony captured, that means you’ll have to set up a multi-cam system. This’ll require multiple cameras and multiple camera operators to get the shots you need. You’ll also need to mic up the room and place lav mics on the emcee and the couple — if you can. So, if you’re looking to give the couple a price quote, make sure to include these extra additions to your final total.

When it comes to editing, you’ll be editing in either a multi-cam format or a multiple-track format. Either way, it’s going to take you longer to edit this style of video than to edit a small, five-minute highlight reel. While this type of wedding video is a great memento to have (to show the folks unable to attend), it comes at a cost.

The Cinematic Style

The “cinematic” style has become the new norm in wedding videography. Most couples want a highly stylized “highlight reel” of the entire day’s process: getting ready, the ceremony, the bridal party photos, and the reception. It’s kind of like you’re creating a video that captures the “feeling” of the day, compared to capturing the reality. This type of video is highly popular among social media users, as well. It’s the perfect package to pitch to a couple who want to share their story with the world.

You can easily shoot this style of video by yourself. All you need is a good run-and-gun set-up — a high-quality DSLR or mirrorless camera, a good gimbal, and some strong arms. You’re looking to capture the highlights, which means you can stage things a little bit. Have the couple run through a wheat field. Ask them to stare longingly into each other’s eyes. Capture all of these highlights in 60-120 frames per second so that you can slow them down in post. This is my favorite style of wedding video to shoot since you get to add more of your own creative vision — bringing the wedding to life through a lens.

Editing-wise, it’ll almost play out like any other highlight reel you might see on YouTube for an event — attractive visuals, emotional music, and sweeping drone shots. You also get the opportunity to color grade in interesting ways, which can really capture the feeling of their big day.

Wedding Videographer FAQs

Is a wedding videographer worth it?

A videographer is an investment every couple should make. It’s motion that makes memories come to life.

How far in advance should I book my videographer?

If your wedding is in the peak season, you should aim to have your videographer commissioned eight to 12 months ahead of time to save the date. During the low season, you can reserve their services closer in. You also have more wiggle room if you choose a less seasoned professional as they are less likely to be booked up.

Why should I hire a two-person team?

Your coverage will be more comprehensive and your video will have more dimension in that it’ll be shot from an additional perspective. This is great for angle changes for important moments, such as the ceremony, speeches, or formal dance—moments where the focus is on the couple. And because the assistant’s primary role is to shoot b-roll, that also provides a greater opportunity to catch those great reaction shots from the guests.

What are the different styles that wedding videos may be shot in?

The standard option is a sequential, chronological video that plays through the major points of the day in order. Consider the videographer a fly on the wall for this style, or a shadow that just trails you throughout the day.” The end result is music-heavy with pops of recorded speech.

Why should I get a wedding video?

It depends on how important it is to you to have your wedding documented – to be able to re-live and share your wedding day with family and friends, now and into the future. If it is, a wedding video is one of the best possible ways to capture your special day. Still photos – while a crucial element for almost every wedding – only convey a single moment. A wedding video on the other hand, records all the detail that is missed between photographs, as well as the emotion and joy of the day. The amount of happiness that your wedding film will bring you, both immediately and into the future, makes it a must-have for any couple.

What is a ‘Feature’ edit? Should we get one?

In the industry today, more and more people are catching onto Feature edits (AKA Short-Form edit/Story Film) as the way to go for their wedding videography.

A ‘Feature’ edit is essentially a 10-30 minute wedding film, creatively edited to highlight the most memorable moments of your day. In our experience as professional wedding videographers, a traditional ‘Documentary’ style video, while still a beautiful record of the day, is long and can be quite tedious.

Remember – longer is not always better. Believe it or not, more time and energy goes into creating a Feature film than a Documentary style. We’d highly recommend considering it as an option for your final wedding video.

How long should I book a wedding videographer for?

Generally, you’ll find that most wedding videographers have specific packages to cover a combination of different sections of the wedding day. In the end it really depends on how much of the day you want to have on video, and how much time each section of the day is planned to take. We recommend booking for the whole wedding – in the end, it’s better to be safe than sorry. Picture yourself after the wedding – you don’t want to look back, wishing you had gotten that extra special footage of the bride’s preparation, the bride and groom’s first dance together, the bouquet toss, or your guests saying goodbye at the end of the night.

Local Moving Drive Away The Moving And Associated Hazards

Moving – A Consumers Guide


If you pay someone to perform a move in whether the move is across town or across the state, the move is probably regulated Intrastate household goods movers operating must have a certificate (“C” number) issued by the Commission. Such certificated movers are required to have insurance, to meet other consumer protection requirements, and to comply with the provisions of the Maximum Rate Tariff (MRT). [Note: Interstate shipments, international shipments, government and military moves, commercial moves (offices and equipment), and new furniture/retail deliveries are not under the Commission’s jurisdiction.]

The Commission issued the MRT to establish the maximum rates movers may charge their customers for the services they render. The tariff also provides the forms which must be used and the information which must be given to each customer, as well as the rules and regulations governing these moves

BE SMART! HIRE A COMMISSION-CERTIFICATED MOVER. Minimize the risk of moving-day delays, damages, inflated charges, or loss of your possessions by hiring a legal (certificated) mover. To access a list of legal movers The list is updated monthly. Subsequent canceled, suspended, and newly-issued certificates will not be reflected in the list until the next update. If you want to check a mover’s current status

The Commission requires movers to carry a minimum amount of $50,000 for cargo insurance. If you believe that your shipment has a value greater than the $50,000 amount of insurance coverage required by the Commission, you may want to request written verification of additional coverage from your mover to ensure your shipment will be adequately covered.

The Maximum Rate Tariff establishes “maximum” rates a mover can charge; however, you and the mover are allowed to negotiate moving rates that are lower than the established maximum rates. Sometimes customers encounter movers who do not have a certificate from the Commission. Such uncertificated movers may not realize that intrastate household goods moving is a regulated activity

Complete Guide to Moving Locally

there are a couple of things you should do beforehand. Some of these helpful tips and tricks we’ve gathered here will make sure you have the best move possible.

Setting the budget

Well, this might be the most difficult part. It is time to talk about money. Let’s start from the beginning. You decided you will have a professional moving company to relocate you. Now are they gonna pack you as well? Is this something to think about, or you decided to pack on your own? Once you determine what your budget is, you can start searching for the best moving company that fits your budget.

It’s research time!

We are going to start from basics here. You have decided on your budget and that you want a professional moving company to move you. Next step is to type local movers near me to get the best results. If you are looking for the best local moving company that fits your needs you will need to dial a few numbers. Make sure to check the company’s website and their reviews on GMB. Best thing you can get are testimonials from clients about the service from their reviews.

Things to look after

Well, moving is a notorious business so there is some information you need to have. Think about the way the moving company base their price- Is it per hour or flat rate? Using a moving company that is hourly based can save you some money, since you are in full control of how long the move will take since it will depend on your preparation and agility. In addition, the way you know your agent is experienced is that they provide you options about the number of movers they recommend. Finally, the most important thing is to ask if there are any additional charges, fees, tax, credit card fees and similar. You do not want any surprise on the date of the move.

Let’s book now!

Now, you probably know who you will choose for you local movers and packers of choice. As soon as you decide, contact the company and lock in the date. Moving companies are usually short on availability so have a sense of urgency regarding this. Once more, get it in writing- agreement, email confirmation – anything.

Guide to Moving

Moving can be an exhausting process when you’re simply relocating to a new neighborhood – so it’s no wonder that a move to a brand-new city can be intimidating and overwhelming

A place by lots of other names is still a sweet place to call home.

You’ve probably heard it called The Big Easy, thanks to our laid back lifestyle. Maybe you’ve also heard it referred to as the Birthplace of Jazz, or the Crescent City? Our unique culture, a mixing pot with hundreds of years of history behind it

Bikes are a great way to get around

Bikes are one of the most enjoyable ways to experience the city. In addition to exploring a wealth of trails around cyclists can also take leisurely rides through iconic areas of the city

great place to build a career.

While the tourism industry is still booming, their are more and more job opportunities for young professionals in the greater  and that we were voted a top city for woman-owned companies and young entrepreneurs?

blazing trails in education.

offers private schools and charter schools to meet the needs of students and families “a grand experiment in urban education for the nation.” The charter school system and private schools give parents an unprecedented choice in where they send their children to receive an education.


Expats moving will find themselves amidst a vibrant, sprawling and densely populated metropolitan and just like every other city has its strengths and weaknesses. The bitter truth is many admitted to having a love-hate relationship with this wonderful yet complex city. One of the main reasons is because, with a population of more than 10 million, you can’t help but find yourself in the middle of a busy and hectic culture, which includes unbearable long-hours of traffic. You will also notice a stark contrast of poverty and affluence in the city, from slums and shanty-towns to modern skyscrapers, luxurious homes, and apartments as well as grand buildings.

offers much more than its masses. As the commercial and economic center of the nation, the capital offers limitless experiences, including great areas to explore, mega shopping malls to shop till you drop, hip new entertainment and dining spots to enjoy, rich cultural heritage to embrace and some new friends to be made.

The People

each with its own specific customs, which is why one of the most beautiful aspects of the city is its people. You will find that the people here are open, warm, kind, helpful, welcoming, cheerful and super friendly

Accommodation options:

Expats can find a wide variety of lodging options in the city depending on one’s income, from luxury penthouses or homes to apartment flats, studios, and guesthouse rooms

Cost of Living

Obviously, the larger the home or the more elite an area is, the higher it will cost to maintain it. There are also other factors that could contribute to a higher cost of living, for example, if you choose to shop your groceries from Western-style supermarkets instead of local ones. Many people also prefer hiring domestic help, which is fairly affordable here in comparison to other countries but it could increase your cost of living significantly.

Corporate Relocation Guide

Relocating an office is a big task for everyone at the company. The speed, cost and efficiency of the move ultimately depends on how prepared and organized the company is on move day.  All the preparation and planning will come together during the move process. The “count down to moving day” later in this section will begin to give you a good idea about the various tasks that will need to be undertaken to make the office move successful

The majority of corporate relocations take place within a relatively short distance. The theory is that unless a company is expanding into new markets or downsizing, the company will stay in the market in which they have established themselves.  Above all, try to have some fun during the process. Moving is a highly stressful time for everyone involved and advanced planning of relaxing or fun activities will help relieve some of the anxiety involved with the move. Consider the move a great adventure.

Move Team

Just like your company is a team working hard everyday, it is important to assemble yourselves into a move team to achieve a successful relocation. There are three (3) main sections of the move team. The Move Project Manager is the overall person in charge, the Move Area Coordinators are the second part of the team, and the third is the rest of the employees. Define the structure of your move team that best fits your company’s needs. Every department and area must be assigned to a Move Coordinator to ensure it is properly handled for the move.

Move Project Manager

You have been appointed the task of managing the upcoming move for your office. During the months and weeks to come, you will find yourself involved in many of the day-to-day tasks involved in successfully planning any relocation.  While you will have the ultimate responsibility for the success of the move, you cannot do it without the cooperation of your Move Coordinators and they in turn will have an impossible task if they do not have the cooperation of the employees that are assigned to them.

The Move Coordinators should be your seconds in command, each with a specific area of responsibility. Those areas can be broken down by department, building, function or location; the how is up to you and what will make the most sense in your company. You will also need, very early in the process, to have each supervisor or department head understand the moving process and which Move Coordinators are assigned to employees that they oversee.

Learn More About A Divorce Lawyer

Questions to Ask Your Divorce Lawyer

Several factors will affect the outcome of your divorce. Legal advice is among the most critical. Think of your divorce attorney as your advocate, your trusted advisor, your negotiator and your guide through the divorce process. You are hiring an attorney to lead you through a life-changing event, and it is important that you feel comfortable with your choice.

Before hiring a lawyer, take some time to talk in person or over the phone. This is your opportunity to assess the quality of the divorce attorney’s legal advice, as well as the attorney’s experience, approach and cost.

Background & Experience

Questions to ask about an attorney’s experience and education include:

  • How much experience do you have handling divorces?
  • Where did you go to college and law school?
  • When did you graduate?
  • Have you previously handled cases similar to mine?
  • Do you handle child custody cases (if applicable)?
  • Do you have experience using mediation or arbitration in divorce cases?
  • Do you have any other specialized experience that’s relevant to my case?

Do You Specialize in Divorce?

You need a lawyer that specializes in divorce law or family law. Other lawyers, although they may be competent in certain areas of the law, may not have the expertise to handle your case effectively.

How Long Have You Been Practicing Divorce Law?

In matters of family law, nothing matters more than experience. Lawyers with years of courtroom experience are better equipped to handle your case and provide creative solutions.

How Will Your Team Work Together on My Case?

Most law firms have a team of lawyers and law clerks that handle various cases at once. It’s important that you ask whether several lawyers will collaborate on your case, or if only one lawyer will—the more skillsets working on your case, the better.

How Will You Achieve My Goals?

A competent lawyer should have a detailed plan after your first meeting regarding how they will meet your goals. Otherwise, you can’t be sure whether their services will be effective.

How Long Do You Expect This Process to Take?

Once the lawyer has been informed about the details of your case, they should have an informed opinion regarding how long it might take to seek a resolution. Otherwise, the case might drag on forever and cost you a lot of money.

Do you have testimonials from clients whose divorces you’ve handled, and can I have access to those testimonials?

While client privacy and confidentiality must be respected, an experienced, successful divorce attorney will have written testimonials, or in some cases, you may be able to speak to previous clients.

Do you prefer to resolve divorce settlements outside court or to litigate in family court? This is an important question because it will usually cost less to settle finances and custody of children in negotiations outside of court. Some attorneys will pursue court for settlement because they’ll be able to charge more. It’s important that your prospective divorce attorney does what’s best for you, not what will inflate their fee.

Questions to Ask About Costs

  • What are the hourly rates for you and the other people working on my case? Do you require a retainer?
  • Are there any additional charges I should expect? (Additional charges could include private investigators, forensic accountants, physicians, psychologists, and even office expenses such as copies and postage).
  • Assuming things run smoothly, what will the total divorce cost me?
  • Most attorneys will not want to answer this question, because it is very difficult to estimate a total price. However, a reputable attorney will give you a range of what a typical divorce, like yours, could cost. The answer is typically a price range. Keep in mind that a surprisingly low number might be too good to be true.
  • What can I do to keep costs down? Are there tasks I can complete on my own? Can I speak directly with my spouse?

What are the strategies you would recommend for my case? What’s the backup plan?

In a similar fashion, you should note that, in some cases, a divorce won’t go as planned. Whether that’s if your spouse decides to contest your property settlement agreement or if a judge decides against you on a particular matter, it’s always a good idea to draft not only a strong Plan A, but a Plan B and a Plan C as well.

Many attorneys will have a “recommended” strategy in their heads when they hear the details of your case, but they’ll also have a secondary plan for if things go wrong.

For example, mediation may be the preferred resolution in your case, but what happens if you can’t come to an agreement with your spouse? Instead, you should take the time to go over any supplemental plans with your attorney in addition to their recommended strategy for resolving your matter.

Posted inLegal

Electrical Home Inspections Online Studies

Homeowner Wiring

defines an “owner’s exemption” as an exemption from licensure requirements for an individual owner who is personally installing electrical wiring and fixtures in a residence or farmstead which is owned and resided in or on by the person installing the electrical wiring or fixtures.

however, a wiring permit is required when a $10 or more fee is generated (see below). You may purchase a wiring permit from the Electrical Commission. (Note: Homeowners are not allowed to conduct an installation on commercial or rental property with a Homeowner’s permit. Homeowners of a mobile home or modular home are not allowed to conduct an installation on these structures unless the units are located on an owner occupied lot at the time the installation is conducted.

A fee is generated per the Fees for Inspections schedule. For instance, an individual may change up to four openings in a home before a permit is generated as the first 40 openings are $2 per opening. Opening could be fixtures, receptacles, switches, etc. Therefore you would not be required to pull a permit to change a light or two or four. But if you change out five or more openings of any combination, a fee of $10 or more would be generated requiring a permit. Please note, an installer may request an inspection for any installation whether it generates a $10 fee or not.

inspector or the Commission office for an inspection. You are required to notify your local inspector and have a rough-in inspection completed prior to insulating, sheet rocking, paneling or covering the installation with any other type of material which would inhibit the rough-in inspection. Underground wiring must be inspected before the trench is back-filled.

Rough-in — This is when you have all of the boxes mounted, all wires installed to all of the boxes and properly stapled, supported and exposed for inspection (with no insulation, drywall or other material covering the wiring).

Final Inspection — Everything should be complete at this time. All light fixtures, receptacles, switches, cover plates and other equipment such as water heaters, furnaces and other fixed in place equipment should be installed and energized.

Electrical Concepts and Terms All Home Inspectors Should Know

Home inspectors often have a background in building, whether in construction, roofing, plumbing, electrical, or another important home system. So as a home inspector, you may already know something about inspecting electrical systems. In case you don’t, or your knowledge is incomplete, we’ve put together a short guide for you

First, we want to reiterate how dangerous electricity can be. Whenever you inspect this important home system, it’s critical that you understand exactly how to go about it. Any misstep can lead to injury or even death.

Electrical Terms to Know

Sparkfun calls voltage, current, and resistance the building blocks of electricity. What does each of these terms mean? It’s easiest to understand if you think of all three at once since they are so closely interrelated.

Voltage: The amount of pressure in the current

Current: The flow of electricity

Resistance: The level of difficulty the current has flowing through the circuit

Home inspectors usually only measure the voltage in a home to make sure the wiring is functioning and safe. This is usually done with a multimeter.

Hot wires are usually encased in black or red insulating plastic, but you can’t rely on this 100 percent. The wiring might be very old, it might have been done incorrectly, or all the wiring might be black. In some instances, the hot wire is designated by electrical tape on the end of the connection. So you don’t want to assume and touch the wrong wire; it could be fatal.

Electrical Inspector Careers

Electrical inspectors are responsible for verifying that proper materials, connections and wiring methods are used in everything from lighting and security systems to HVAC systems and major appliances during construction and remodel jobs to ensure safety and efficiency standards are met.

An electrical inspector is responsible for testing and checking electrical wiring, circuitry, and equipment in buildings, homes, and industrial installations. They validate the size and type of wiring used, the ratings of electrical panels and connectors, and verify that the installation conforms to local and national electrical code requirements

Most electrical inspectors start out as regular electricians. They develop their expertise in the field through years of hands-on experience, working their way up from apprentice, to journeyman, to master electrician. Working as an inspector is usually less physically demanding and puts a premium on the hard-won knowledge electricians have gained from many years in the field.

Electrical Inspectors on the Job Site and In the Office

Electrical inspectors work independently. They are usually responsible for booking their own appointments and making contact with contractors and project managers working jobs that need inspections.

As they progress in their field, inspectors may take on additional responsibilities that include:

Reviewing reports from other inspectors

Participating in code review conferences

Providing input on possible additions and changes to local building codes

On the Job Site

Inspectors often find themselves working in active construction sites while walls are still open and wiring exposed. This comes with all the hazards and difficulties you would expect, including having to work around other tradesmen finishing their projects. Just like everybody else on the job, electrical inspectors wear personal protective equipment like helmets and high-visibility vests.

Electrical Inspections

When a wiring permit is opened by your electrical contractor, and a wiring inspection is scheduled through our Wiring Permit Contact Centre, one of our experienced inspectors will visit your site to start the inspection process.

Who can perform electrical and communications installations?

Electrical installations must be performed by someone who holds a certificate of qualification in the Electrical Construction trade issued by the Department of Labour and Advanced Education. Communication wiring installations must be completed by a holder of a certificate as a Communications Cabling Specialist as issued by Department of Labour and Advanced Education.

What if I am connecting service to a location that has not had electricity in more than a year?

We require a general inspection permit for those premises where electrical service has been disconnected for a period greater than one year. Please contact a qualified electrician. Your electrician will arrange for an inspection through us as required under the Electrical Installation and Inspection Act.

What is involved in an electrical inspection and why perform them?

wiring inspector will visit the site and perform an electrical inspection. Inspections are required prior to any wiring being concealed with backfill, lathing, boarding, insulation or other covering materials. This inspection is referred to as a rough-in inspection. Upon the completion of the wiring, the contractor will arrange for a final inspection. A final inspection may include but not limited to an inspection of electrical devices, lighting, and labeling of electrical panels and equipment.

Does electrical equipment need to be approved? If so, by whom?

In accordance with the Electrical Code Regulations Section 15(1), no corporation, company, or person shall sell, have for sale, display, rent, lease, advertise, install or use any electrical device, appliance or equipment unless it is certified as approved equipment, as defined in the Code, by a certification organization acceptable to the Department of Labour’s Chief Electrical Inspector

Electrical Permits & Inspections

To ensure public safety, approval must be issued before the installation or repair of any electrical equipment commences, including:

Wiring installations in residential, public and industrial / commercial sites and or buildings

Installations for the private generation of electricity

The installation of apparatus such as generators, transformers, switchboards and large storage batteries

Electrical Permits are only issued to Registered Electrical Contractors except as noted below:

An individual or organization may request that an inspection be performed by the Government Service Centre to determine the condition of an existing electrical system and for reconnection of electrical service.


The fees for electrical permits and inspections are listed on the application. The total permit cost will vary depending on the nature and extent of the work to be completed.

Myths About Home Inspection

Questions to Ask – Home Inspection Guide

Chances are, your home is the largest purchase you will ever make.  Because of the size of the investment, it is best practice to have a certified home inspector come and go through your potential home with a fine-toothed comb and give you the low down on any hidden quirks or repairs that need to be made

When meeting with your home inspector once they are finished, these seven questions will help you understand the vast amounts of information they will give you and guide you through the re-negotiation or purchase process.

May I see your license?

This may seem like an unusual question to ask, but trusting such a large decision to anything less than a home inspection performed by someone who is licensed is foolish.  Before hiring an inspector, ask to see their licensure.

Which parts of my home does the inspection cover?

Before you schedule a home inspection, review the areas of the home your inspector will be covering.  Less than half the states in the US have specific guidelines about what is covered during a home inspection, therefore which areas to be inspected should be agreed upon before hiring an inspector.  Keep in mind, the average home inspection should take between three and four hours, longer for an older, larger home.  Anyone spending less time than this may not be as thorough as you would have hoped.

What is the process to fix that?

While inspectors are not licensed contractors, they can give you an idea of what the process is to fix most problems.  Such explanations will give you the chance to decide whether to tackle the repair yourself, renegotiate the purchase terms, or build the repairs into after-purchase costs.

If you were buying this house, which repairs would you tackle first?

Your home inspector’s expert eye will be able to prioritize any repairs that are necessary before purchasing the home over those that can wait until a later time.  Not only does this give your home inspector an opportunity to help you understand what does and does not need to be repaired, it gives you a chance to budget appropriately for repairs or maintaining home warranty coverage.

Final Home Inspection Tips

You’re nearing the final stretch of selling your home solo. It’s been an exciting and demanding journey, you’ve found a buyer, negotiated a price and you’re ready to close. But first, there’s the final walk-through.

you’re almost sure to have a final home inspection carried out before closing. Had you gone the traditional route, the buyer’s agent would normally be responsible for the final walk-through with the inspector.

When to schedule the final home inspection

The best time for a FSBO final property walk-through will depend on a few things, but your goal should be as close to the actual closing as possible. If the closing is scheduled to take place at 1:00 pm on Monday, try scheduling the final home inspection for 9:00 that morning. If your closing is in the morning, schedule the walk through the afternoon or evening before closing. Touch base with the seller a few days in advance to determine a time that works for both of you.

Seller’s rights at final home inspection

The final home inspection before closing is not an invitation for the buyer to start re-negotiating the sale price. That window was closed once the buyer signed a contract. Their chance of negotiating any further is over.

Caveat emptor (let the buyer beware)

Don’t be surprised if, during the final home inspection, the buyer begins to notice flaws he or she hadn’t seen before and attempts to reopen negotiations. The trouble is, it’s too late for that. Do not feel compelled to discuss the price of repairs or lowering the price of the home.  The buyer had plenty of time before today to take care of these issues and request you pay for repairs or lower the home’s price.

Home Inspections

Home Inspections are an integral part of nearly every residential real estate transaction and knowing what to expect and how to deal with the results, from both the buying and selling side, can mean the difference between having a great experience and a frustrating (and potentially expensive) one.

there are licensing standards in many areas and even in unlicensed areas, there are several trade groups that do a great job of establishing minimum standards, but these standards fall short of truly protecting buyers from the unknown – these standards are really meant to reduce an inspector’s liability and that is not what you want as a home buyer.  With that being said, there’s only one certification in the industry that requires inspectors to provide a 100% satisfaction guarantee, an inspection that goes beyond minimum standards providing true protection for buyers and sellers alike, and quality service that is continuously monitored by a third party; that would be the Certified Inspection Expert.

For example, if you move in and discover that a pipe is leaking under a sink, what do you do?  This guide will show you how to get that repair done for free – just by choosing the right home inspector.  In fact, this website will explain how to be covered against literally hundreds of potential failures at no cost to you – giving buyers true peace of mind while in many regards reducing liability for a seller as well – and it is something that is offered by the leading home inspection companies

You’ll also find a list of things inspectors should be checking and a list of questions to ask an inspector before you hire them.  While price is always a consideration in anything you do, pricing variation in home inspections is rarely substantial.

Hiring a Home Inspector

Buying a home can be one of the most important financial investments you will ever make. But, how do you know if the house is everything it appears to be? If your new home has hidden structural issues and needs major repairs, you may be buying into a money pit and sleepless nights. A home inspection is one of the smartest ways to educate yourself about the physical condition of a property before you buy.

What’s a Home Inspection?

A home inspection is a visual inspection of the physical structure and mechanical condition of a home – from roof to foundation. The inspection is designed to identify problems, advise of repairs needed and, in some cases, provide preventive maintenance advice. A home inspection points out the positive aspects of a home, as well as the maintenance that will be necessary to keep it in good shape.

Tips for Hiring a Home Inspector

Pick a home inspector who has experience, positive references, and is known for being very comprehensive. While this may cost more upfront, hiring a great inspector will save you money in the long run. If you don’t get a complete, accurate inspection, you may miss major problems and your chance to negotiate repairs with the seller.

Ask friends and acquaintances for recommendations. Ask for and experienced home inspector who is known for being very thorough.

Find someone familiar with your type of home and the issues you need to inspect. Be sure your inspector specializes in homes, not commercial properties, and any issues you anticipate finding. For example, if you’re concerned about a home’s structure, consider hiring a professional engineer or architect who also does general home inspections. Also, be sure your agreement with the inspector covers the systems you most need to have examined.

Ask prospective inspectors questions about their professional training, relevant experience and/or length of time in business.

Make sure your home inspector is working in your best interests. For example, many home inpectors rely on referrals from real estate agents for their business. This means that the inspector may be more interested in maintaining that relationship than providing you a thorough inspection. They may be less inclined to identify major repair issues that hold up the sale of your home. Also, be cautious about hiring a home inspector who is looking to get contracting work from you.

Be present during the inspection. The majority of inspectors will allow you to tour the home with them and ask questions during or after the inspection. The inspection can last anywhere from two to five hours, depending on the size of the house.

Ask how soon after the inspection will you receive a copy of the home inspection final written report. Carefully read your home inspection report and make a list of items that need correction. Understand that the home inspection report records the condition of the home, both positives and negatives. This will help you to determine your future expenditures for repairs and maintenance. The report will contain useful information that serves as a reference for you in the future.

The Complete Guide to Home Inspection

Thorough enough for professionals…accessible enough for homeowners! Written in plain language suitable even for first-time home buyers, it is invaluable for home buyers, home sellers, professional home inspectors, and every homeowner who wants to understand what their house is telling them.

Truly comprehensive in scope. This is the most extensive examination of home inspection available, covering all areas of the home from top to bottom, including:




Foundations, basements, and crawlspaces


Electrical systems

Heating and cooling

Kitchen, baths, and laundries

Garages, attached structures, and many other areas

the authors are on a highly focused mission to:

Determine your home’s hidden trouble spots and how to remedy them

Provide sound advice on avoiding hazardous materials

Offer helpful tips for improving energy efficiency, and much more.

Put an end to the mysterious problems that can create a “Money Pit.” Head off potential problems as you learn to understand a home’s systems. Includes enormously helpful resources:

Checklists – for properly inspecting a home

Retrofit tips – to quickly resolve problems and issues

Do You Want To Become A Professional Tax Preparation

How to Choose a Tax Preparer

Who does your business’s taxes? Perhaps you still do them yourself. Maybe you use the services of a relative who happens to be an accountant.

No matter what your scenario, there comes a time when you should consider hiring a professional tax preparer.

A tax preparer for a small business is more than just a numbers cruncher—he or she should be a specialized advisor. A good tax preparer will not only prepare and file your taxes, but also display a thorough understanding your industry, offer you advice on how to make the most of your tax deductions, and explain how different legal structures for your business can help you save money.

A licensed attorney, a certified public accountant or an enrolled agent are all qualified to do tax preparation. Some states have licensing requirements for anyone who prepares tax returns for a fee; some have them for fee-based preparation of state tax returns only.

As far as preparers of federal tax returns, the IRS requires enrolled agents, CPAs and attorneys to have a Preparer Tax Identification Number (PTIN). This is an identification number that all paid tax return preparers must use on U.S. federal tax returns or claims for tax refunds submitted to the IRS.

To find a qualified tax preparer, start by asking local business owners who does their taxes and if they’re satisfied with the person. Make sure to ask for suggestions of tax preparers with experience in your industry, if possible. Before meeting with any candidates, the IRS suggests you understand the requirements for a tax return preparer, including credentials and qualifications. Make sure you know what tests they take, how often they need to take courses to refresh their education, and what practice rights are allowed.

After you’ve narrowed down your list of possibilities, ask the candidates for references and check them. Talk to several references to determine if there are any concerns, such as whether the person is hard to get in touch with or has any personality traits that could cause conflicts. Also check online reviews such as those on Yelp to see if any glaring criticisms stand out.

Once you’re ready to meet with a prospective tax preparer, here are some topics to discuss:

  • Payment. Try to get a clear understanding of the cost early in the process. You can minimize your costs by making sure your tax prep documents are well-organized and your accounting system is up-to-date.
  • Communication. Ask what is the best way to get in touch with the person in case you have a question or concern. Whether it’s text, email or phone, how soon can you expect to hear back?
  • Personal touch. Sometimes, you may be dealing with multiple people from the tax preparer’s office. It’s important to meet and talk with the person or people who will actually be handling your account.
  • Follow-up. Find out if your tax preparer will suggest ways for you to save on taxes next year or if he or she will contact you later if there are any new tax changes that could affect your business.
  • E-file. Make sure your preparer offers the IRS e-file option. Paid preparers who do taxes for more than 10 clients generally must file electronically.

Questions That Can Help You Choose a Tax Preparer 

If you’re like most people, you’d rather go with a pro during tax season: More than 83 million people pay someone to help prepare their federal tax return, according to IRS data. That shouldn’t come as a surprise: With so many rules to know, forms to fill out and formulas to follow, it’s easy to make a mistake if you go it alone.

But when it comes to finding a good tax preparer, how can you be sure you’re making the right choice? Referrals are a great place to start, but it’s still important to do your due diligence. Make sure you’re asking the right questions — and getting the right answers. Here’s what to ask a tax professional before you decide to hire them.


This is the first question you should ask any tax professional. Any person who charges a fee to prepare taxes for others must register with the IRS and receive a preparer tax identification number (PTIN). In addition to signing your completed tax return, the tax preparer is required by law to enter this number on any return he or she prepares.


Tax preparers fall into one of two main representation categories. Those who carry “unlimited representation rights” can represent clients on any matters, ranging from audits to collection issues to appeals. Those who carry “limited representation rights” can only intervene on behalf of people whose returns they prepared and signed, and under specific circumstances.

According to the IRS, tax professionals with unlimited representation rights include attorneys, certified public accountants (CPAs) and enrolled agents (tax preparers who have passed a three-part IRS enrollment exam). While an enrolled agent (EA) is not an employee or representative of the IRS, he or she can act on a taxpayer’s behalf when it comes to dealing with the IRS. In order to retain their licenses, enrolled agents must complete a minimum of 72 hours of continuing education every three years.

Both attorneys and CPAs are required to obtain licenses according to the rules and regulations of the states in which they operate — however, this does not mean that they will be tax experts. Some attorneys do specialize in tax planning and preparation, but keep in mind that most perform a range of other duties and their focus may not be on filing returns for clients. Similarly, CPAs may perform many duties outside of tax preparations, and many specialize in other areas of finance. So before hiring either type of professional to prepare your tax returns, make sure you meet them and are comfortable with their level of expertise.


If you know your tax situation is not typical, make sure the professional you hire is someone who has completed returns similar to yours.

Working with a tax preparer who is familiar with your line of work can mean the difference between claiming all the deductions you’re eligible for and forfeiting your hard-earned money. If your tax situation is more complicated than the average nine-to-fiver’s — you’re self-employed, own a business or rental property, live in one state but work in another, have received an inheritance, or have worked abroad — your tax preparer should be trained to handle it. Colleagues who are in a similar tax situation can be good sources for referrals.

Which Type of Tax Preparer is Right for You?

First, it’s important to understand the different types of tax preparer and their qualifications. Only enrolled agents, certified public accounts and attorneys may represent their clients to the IRS on matters such as audits, collection issues, and appeals.

Enrolled Agent (EA): An EA is a tax preparer that has been approved by the IRS to represent taxpayers. An EA must either have prior qualifying employment with the IRS or pass an intensive two-day exam on federal taxation and complete a background check. To maintain EA status, they must complete a specified number of credit hours each year of continuing education in accounting methods and tax regulations. An EA may work independently or as part of a firm and may specialize in specific areas of tax law.

An EA is a good option if you have a more complex tax situation. However, you’ll want to make sure their area of expertise applies to your personal situation. Fees and availability may vary, but you can expect an EA to charge less than a CPA. An EA is also qualified to help you with financial planning and give you tips that could help you reduce your taxes in the future.

Certified Public Accountants (CPA): CPAs have a college degree (or the equivalent in work experience). They are licensed after passing a state professional qualifying exam. They are highly skilled in accounting. This makes them good candidates for complex tax planning and preparation if they are experienced in handling tax matters and enrolled in continuing education programs that keep them abreast of the constant changes to tax laws. If your return is quite complex, a CPA may be your best choice for tax preparation, but keep in mind they will charge much more than basic tax preparers.

Attorneys: Tax often attorneys charge the highest fees as tax preparers. For taxpayers looking to legally shelter part of their income, or for those who need specialized advice on municipal bonds, estate planning, and the like, hiring a tax attorney is a good option.

Non-Credentialed Tax Preparers: There are about 700,000 people who work as non-credentialed tax preparers in the United States. They often work part-time or only during the tax season. These preparers must have an active preparer tax identification number (PTIN) through the IRS, but beyond that, regulating tax preparers done at the state level. In the vast majority of states, anyone can prepare tax returns for others without having to take an exam, get a license, or comply with other government regulation. Learn more about your state’s requirements here.  Read more about “ghost tax preparers” here.

Most tax preparers are legitimate and competent, but keep in mind that without a national license requirement, they may be working off of their own personal research and experience. Because of this, it is important you conduct a thorough interview with the tax preparer before you hire them.

How to Choose the Right Tax Preparer:

When it comes to choosing the right kind tax preparer for you personally, much will depend on the complexity of your tax situation. After you’ve decided what qualifications your tax preparer needs, the following tips will help you choose someone who is trustworthy and competent:

  • Review the tax preparer’s credentials. EAs, CPAs, and tax attorneys are all qualified to represent their clients to the IRS on all matters. Other preparers can help you with forms and basic matters, but cannot represent you in case of an audit. Don’t be afraid to ask about these or other qualifications before you hire someone.
  • Be wary of spectacular promises. If a tax preparer promises you larger refunds than the competition, this is a red flag. Many such tax preparers base their fees on the amount of your return and may be likely to use shady tax preparation tactics. In addition, it’s wise to avoid tax preparers who offer “refund anticipation loans” as you’ll probably lose a large percentage of your return to commission fees.
  • Get referrals from friends and family. One of the best ways to find a trustworthy tax preparer is to ask your loved ones for recommendations. Once you have a few options, check the, paying careful attention to other consumers’ reviews or complaint details. This will give you a clear view about what you can expect.
  • Think about availability. If the IRS finds errors in your tax forms or decides to perform an audit, will your tax preparer be available to help you with the details? Find out whether you can contact the tax preparer all year long or only during tax season.
  • Ask about fees ahead of time. Before you agree to any services, read contracts carefully and understand how much the tax preparer charges for their services. Ask about extra fees for e-filing state, federal, and local returns, as well as fees for any unexpected complications.
  • If things don’t add up, find someone else. If a tax preparer can’t verify their credentials, has a record of bad reviews from previous clients, or their business practices don’t seem convincing, don’t do business with them. Keep in mind that if you hire them, this individual will handle your sensitive personal information – information you need to keep safe from corrupt or fraudulent tax preparers.

Review your return before signing. 

Before you sign your tax return, review it and ask questions if something is not clear. Make sure you’re comfortable with the accuracy of the return before you sign it.

Never sign a blank return.

Don’t use a tax preparer that asks you to sign a blank tax form.

Ensure the preparer signs and includes their PTIN. 

Paid preparers must sign returns and include their PTIN as required by law. The preparer must also give you a copy of the return.

Eye Care Treatment For Improved Eye Health

What is short sight (myopia)?

Short sight occurs when light coming from distant objects is ‘overfocused’, so that the point of focus is in front of the retina. It occurs because either the eyeball is too long, or because the cornea is too curved. Despite maximum flattening of the lens, the eye is not able to focus the light rays further back and on to the retina.

Light coming from near objects requires a stronger focusing activity anyway, so in myopia light from near objects is more likely to be focused in the right place.

People with short sight are not able to see distant objects clearly. Short sight or near sight mean exactly what the terms suggest. You are sighted (you can see), near (short) distance objects. Near objects (for example, when reading a book) can often be seen well. This is because when looking at near objects, the light rays come into the eye going slightly outwards. These will focus further back in the eye than light rays that come in straight from distant objects.

The diagram above shows the differences in focusing between a normal and a short-sighted (myopic) eye.

What causes short sight (myopia)?

Short sight tends to happen in children and young teenagers. It often runs in families. Temporary short-sightedness can also occur with certain illnesses – for example, in diabetes.

What are the symptoms of short sight (myopia)?

The main symptom is a difficulty with distance vision. The earlier short sight starts, the more severe it is likely to become. By the time early adulthood is reached, the level of short sight has usually reached its peak. This means that the vision does not generally become any worse.

Some children do not realise that their vision is not as good as it should be. They may be able to read books and do close work well. However, seeing distant objects such as the board at school may become difficult. They may think this is normal and not tell anyone. Schoolwork may suffer for a while before the condition is identified and treatment provided.

Children usually have a routine preschool or school-entry vision check. Your child’s teacher may notice that children are having difficulties in class reading the board. If you suspect your child has problems with his or her sight, you should arrange for an eyesight test with an optician who is happy to assess children. For young children and toddlers, your GP may be able to make arrangements for a sight test. Sight tests are free for children.

What is anisometropia?

Very few people are born with two eyes of identical optical power, but the brain manages to compensate and it’s usually unnoticeable.

However, when a person has anisometropia, the difference in vision between their two eyes is significant and will interfere with normal binocular vision. In practice, they will see a smaller image in one eye and a larger image in the other eye. The result is that their overall vision is often blurred.

Another potential outcome from anisometropia is amblyopia (lazy eye), which can occur if one eye has blurred vision for some time and becomes permanently weaker.

Sometimes anisometropia can be present at birth, although frequently it won’t become apparent until later in life. It has been estimated that around six percent of all children aged between six and eighteen suffer from this visual condition.

Types of anisometropia

There are three types of anisometropia:

  • Simple anisometropia. This is when one eye is affected while the other eye has no refractive error (or spectacle prescription). The affected eye can either be hyperopic (long-sighted) or myopic (short-sighted).
  • Compound anisometropia. This is when both eyes are myopic (short-sighted), although there will be a significant difference in their refractive errors (or spectacle prescriptions). This causes one eye to see a more blurred image than the other.
  • Mixed anisometropia. This is when both eyes have appreciable refractive errors, with one eye myopic and the other hyperopic.

Symptoms of anisometropia

There are a number of potential symptoms, including:

  • Amblyopia (lazy eye). Usually, this is when reduced refractive power in one eye causes a lack of visual stimulation that results in insufficient information being transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain
  • Strabismus (crossed eyes). When a patient is unable to align both eyes. This lack of coordination prevents both eyes being able to focus on the same point in space
  • Diplopia (often known as double vision). The result includes:
  • Eyestrain
  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Light sensitivity
  • Tiredness
  • Dizziness.


Even people who have normal vision can have up to 5% difference in the refractive power of each eye. However, those with a 5–20% difference will experience uneven vision (anisometropia). Causes include defects in the eye at childbirth as well as uneven size of the two eyes.

Visual acuity, eyesight and vision: What’s the difference?

Visual acuity

Visual acuity is the clarity of your eyesight, measured by your ability to identify letters or numbers on a standardized eye-chart from a specific viewing distance.

Visual acuity is a static measurement, meaning you are sitting still during the testing and the letters or numbers you are viewing also are stationary.

Visual acuity also is tested under high contrast conditions — typically, the letters or numbers on the eye chart are black, and the background of the chart is white.

Although visual acuity testing is very useful to determine the relative clarity of your eyesight in standardized conditions, it isn’t predictive of the quality of your vision in all situations.

For example, it can’t predict how well you would see:

  • Objects that are similar in brightness to their background
  • Colored objects
  • Moving objects

Three major physical and neurological factors determine visual acuity:

  • How accurately the cornea and lens of the eye focus light onto the retina
  • The sensitivity of the nerves in the retina and vision centers in the brain
  • The ability of the brain to interpret information received from the eyes

Only light that is focused on a very small and highly sensitive portion of the central retina (called the macula) influences visual acuity measurements obtained during an eye exam.


The exact definition of “eyesight” is difficult to pin down. Depending on which dictionary or other resource you check, it can mean “ability to see,” “the sense of seeing,” “vision,” “range of sight” or “view.” Often, the terms “eyesight” and “visual acuity” are used interchangeably.


Vision is a broader term than visual acuity or eyesight. In addition to clarity of sight or simply a description of the ability to see, the term “vision” all interactions between the eyes and the brain, and all neurological processes that take place in the brain to make the sense of vision possible.

Also, unlike simple eyesight or Snellen (high contrast) visual acuity, measures of vision include contrast sensitivity, the ability to track moving objects with smooth and accurate eye movements, color vision, depth perception, focusing speed and accuracy, and more.

Because of the broader nature of the word “vision,” what is commonly called “20/20 vision” should really be called “20/20 visual acuity” or “20/20 eyesight.”

What is hypermetropia?

Hypermetropia, sometimes called hyperopia, is the term used to define being longsighted.

If you are hypermetropic, the image of a nearby object is formed behind the retina. This means that light is focused too far back in the eye, causing things which are close up to appear blurred.

How is it treated?

Both myopia and hypermetropia can be easily corrected by the Optometrist at your local Vision Express, using prescription glasses or contact lenses specifically designed to counteract their effects.

Shortsightedness is corrected using a concave (curved inwards) lens which is placed in front of a myopic eye, moving the image back to the retina and making it clearer.

Longsightedness is corrected using a convex (outward facing) lens. This is placed in front of a hypermetropic eye, moving the image forward and focusing it correctly on the retina.


Astigmatism is a common vision condition that causes blurred vision. It occurs when the cornea (the clear front cover of the eye) is irregularly shaped or sometimes because of the curvature of the lens inside the eye.

Astigmatism is an irregularly shaped cornea or lens that prevents light from focusing properly on the retina, the light-sensitive surface at the back of the eye. The surface of the cornea is shaped more like a football instead of round like a basketball and the eye is unable to focus light rays to a single point. In this case, vision becomes out of focus at any distance. In addition, the curvature of the lens inside the eye can change, resulting in an increase or decrease in astigmatism. This change frequently occurs in adulthood and can precede the development of naturally occurring cataracts.

Astigmatism frequently occurs with other vision conditions like myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). Together these vision conditions are referred to as refractive errors because they affect how the eyes bend or “refract” light.

Causes & risk factors

  • Hereditary and is usually present from birth.
  • May develop following an eye injury or eye surgery.
  • It can occur due to a relatively rare condition called keratoconus in which the cornea becomes progressively thinner and cone-shaped.
  • It can decrease or increase over time.


  • Blurred vision at any distance.
  • Eye discomfort.
  • Headaches.

How To Keep Bat Out Of Your Home


So, You have bats in your attic…..what do you do now? They cause extensive amounts of damage with scratching, chattering and piles of guano. They leave a horrible mess of feces. . They roost in large colonies, and if they have pups you can t move them.

To get rid bats in the attic, you need to follow a simple series of steps. Find out how the bats are getting in. Bats can fit through a space as small as 3/8 inch wide, so don’t overlook any crack or crevice! Inspect the whole roof structure, ridge row and eaves thoroughly. If you familiarize yourself with bat’s habits It will help you know what signs to look for. Bat holes will have a large concentration of black greasy residue around them.

You now know where the bats are roosting, and how they are getting in. You have determined if there are pups. You now have to decide their fate. Do you want to make them just leave? Do you want to kill them? Each of these choices has its own results. If you kill them, how do you do it, what do you do with the carcasses? Is that even legal in your area? If you make them leave, how do you keep them out, and where do they go? Once you have found all the holes and you have decided how to handle your infestation, you can look at options. If you decided to kill them, You could block all the holes to the attic at once and use poison. While this is possible, it’s not a very good choice.

Even if you don’t mind cleaning up the carcasses, this could take several days. In cleaning up you could miss one or two bodies, and you have to deal with residual poison left in your home. If you just want them to leave, Exclusion tunnels are a simple and versatile choice to get rid of the bats in your attic. They are even easy for you build or install, yourself with a few simple tools, a little time, and a few materials. With this method you would seal all but the busiest bat hole. The large end of the funnel is placed over that central whole the bat s use regularly. Exclusion funnels allow the bat to exit through its bat hole to the outside, but not be able to get back in. This is an effective way to force the bat to go elsewhere. After you are sure all the bat s have exited, remove the funnel, and seal up the final hole.

Read more about bat control in my educational articles. Find out if a bat house will prevent bats from entering your home, and whether or not the city or county animal services will help with a bat issue. Learn if a bright light or high pitch sound deterrent machine will work on bats, and if a bat in your attic will have a nest of babies. Find out if a pest control company will remove a bat, and whether it is Legal to trap bats.

How To Get Rid of Bats

SUMMARY: Step-by-step guide for getting rid of bats in a house or attic:

Step 1 – Watch the house at dusk, and observe where the bats fly out of, and how many there are.

Step 2 – Inspect the entire house or building, and find any and all entry gaps, as small as 3/8 inch.

Step 3 – Seal all secondary areas with caulk or other sealant, but leave the main entry/exit gaps open.

Step 4 – Set one-way exclusion netting or funnels on the primary areas. This is very tricky to get right.

Step 5 – Observe at dusk to make sure all the bats are able to get out of the one-way devices, and that they are not able to fly back in. If it’s not working, remove the exclusion material immediately.

Step 6 – If it’s working, leave in place for at least three days, until no more bats come out at dusk.

Step 7 – Remove the netting and seal shut those last entry gaps and holes.

Step 8 – Clean bat guano out of attic, decontaminate and deodorize the space.

WARNING – Never attempt a bat exclusion during the summer maternity season, when flightless baby bats are inside the attic. It’ll result in disaster, and it’s illegal as well.

Bat Info: There are a wide variety of bat species in the US, though it’s usually the colonizing bat types that cause problems in buildings. Bats are not flying mice, or even rodents. They are more closely related to shrews or primates. Though bats often get a bad reputation, they are not aggressive, and are often very beneficial in eliminating pesky insects. Bats aren’t blind. They can see just fine, but they also use echolocation as their means of navigating complex flight and finding insects on the wing. A bat’s wings are essentially the same as our arms and hands, thus the scientific name Chiroptera or handwing. The bones of the hand and finger are elongated and serve to support and move the wing. The hind limbs of bats are modified for landing and hanging upside-down.

Bats become a nuisance when they roost in large numbers in human dwellings. The rapid and smelly accumulation of guano (droppings) is unsanitary, and serves as a fertile breeding ground for a fungal disease called Histoplasmosis, which is transferable to humans who breathe in the fungal spores. Bats are also known to carry rabies, a viral disease that causes progressive paralysis and death in mammals, including humans

People are most likely to encounter nuisance bats when a roosting colony takes up residence in a building. Attics often make excellent habitat, as do barns. Read about How to Get Bats Out of Your Attic. Bats need only a half inch or less of space to crawl through in order to enter a building. Once inside, if the habitat is good, the colony grows until the homeowner notices the bats flying out of the building, notices the droppings in the attic, chimney, outside, or even basement (when the droppings fall down the walls). Sometimes a bat will get lost and find its way out of the attic and into the living area. Occasionally a transient bat may also fly into a house.

A professional bat removal system such as mine ensures that the colony will no longer use your home or business as a roosting area, and that no bats can get back in. We care for the welfare of these beneficial creatures, as do many environmental agencies, so we do not aim to kill any bats. A pro merely exclude them from the premises and make sure they can’t get back in, while thoroughly cleaning the biohazardous droppings that they leave behind. Experience counts when working on bat jobs, and it takes a skilled eye to get the job done right the first time.

How Much Does It Cost to Remove Bats?

The only mammal capable of flying, bats often invade homes, attics, and chimneys, making noise at night, damaging the structure of the home, and leaving hazardous waste in their path. While bats are an important part of the ecosystem, they belong outdoors, making bat removal and exclusion necessary services for homeowners.

Female bats are constantly on the prowl for a warm location to roost and eventually raise their young.They often occupy chimneys and attics. The cost of hiring a professional to remove bats varies based on a multitude of factors. Bat infestation removal cost ranges from $400 to $600, with the average cost of $500 for removing a small colony, including the initial inspection but excluding clean up after the removal.

Bat Removal Cost by Location

Bats can make a home in a number of areas within a house: the chimney, attic, or walls. In most cases, bats colonize in one area of the home. However, in some cases, bats may be in more than one location within a single house. As illustrated by the table below, bat removal costs are relatively consistent despite the location of the bats.

How to Get Rid of Bats in Soffits

Getting rid of bats in soffits starts with a thorough inspection to determine their most common roosting places and then identify potential solutions. In many cases, the best way to prevent bats from roosting outside of your home is to provide them with alternative housing in the form of a bat house. The initial inspection averages $75 to $250, and bat houses range from $50 to $180.

How to Get Rid of Bats on the Porch

When the home is lacking points of entry, bats often get comfortable on the porch. For homeowners wondering who to call for bat removal when they’re outside, pest control services that handle indoor bat infestations can also assist with outdoor needs. The best removal method, in this case, is providing alternative housing by installing a bat house large enough to accommodate the maternal colony. The initial inspection averages $75 to $250, and bat houses range from $50 to $180. Keeping the porch light on at night helps deter bats until a professional can come.

Bats in the Home

Homeowner’s Guide to Bats has information and advice on how to evict and relocate bats, plus tips on handling a bat, designs for one-way doors, and bat house plans. This guide also features a key to identifying the nine bat specie

Report Bat Colonies

Due to recent catastrophic mortalities of bats from White Nose Syndrome (WNS), MassWildlife biologists would like reports of summer bat colony locations. If you see a colony of bats (10 or more bats), please let us know. We study bat colonies to see how many have survived after the onset of White-nose Syndrome

monitoring also leads to advances in conservation and management for endangered bat species, ensuring protection and security of the colonies. To report bat colonies, please complete this survey. Please include the address, location, type of structure (tree, building, attic, barn, shed, or other outbuilding), roughly how many bats are in the colony, and approximately how long the bats have been there.

Bats in Your Home

In the summer, with hot, humid weather, some homeowners may discover bats residing in their home. Attics are the most common area of a house in which bats are most likely to roost and gather in a colony to raise their young. The heat of an attic keeps the pups warm and allows them to grow and develop more rapidly. After a few very hot summer days, an attic may become too hot for the bats, forcing them out and sometimes into the living quarters as they search for cooler places to roost. In late summer, inexperienced young bats may fall down a chimney, fly down an attic stairway, fly through an open window, or land on the ground.

Evicting Bats from Your Home

During warmer months, most bats found in buildings (like homes) are either little brown bats or big brown bats. The presence of any wild animal, including bats, in a home is an obvious indication that the house is not weather-tight. It’s important to note that bats can squeeze through a hole as small as 1/2 inch. In some cases, with small numbers of bats, people don’t mind their presence and concentrate on blocking holes and cracks leading into the human living quarters. Where there is a large colony of bats in house walls, homeowners may consider removing and relocating the bats

Excluding Bats from a Building

Bats in your Home?

If you need to immediately remove a single bat from your living room or elsewhere in your house

Bats in your Attic?

There is no need to panic if you find bats in a building. Bats are simply small animals that are trying to find a suitable home. Some bat colonies can remain safely in buildings without creating a risk for humans. Assess your situation. Are the bats causing a problem? If so, is it the bats themselves, or the side effects of the bats (such as noise, smell or guano) that are the issue? Leaving bats where they are is usually the best option for bat conservation but may not be an appropriate option for the homeowner.

Additional Information:

If the bats are using an outbuilding, such as a barn or storage shed, you may be able to avoid contact with them and co-exist. Some people have lived with bats in their attic for decades since they do not come into contact with them and there are no issues of noise or smell. In other cases, where bats persistently find ways into the human living spaces or guano cannot be regularly cleaned out,

exclusion may be the best option. The primary issue (after not having contact with bats) is usually containment of droppings (guano). Containment can often be achieved at relatively low cost. It is also often the best option when exclusion from drafty outbuildings is virtually impossible.

Bats may roost in many parts of a building structure including under roofing, siding, fascia boards, flashing and rafters, in cracks of the chimney or walls, behind shutters or under a porch roof.

Truck Tires Accidents Mechanical Defects

Important Things to Know About Commercial Truck Tires

Heavy duty truck tire information

Tires are critical vehicle components because they connect trucks and trailers to the road and allow drivers to steer safely on diverse terrains. Since they play such an important role in vehicle operation, it can be beneficial for drivers to understand how to prevent wear and tear. Learn more about tire components and get helpful maintenance tips.

What the sidewall information means

Information such as the Tire Identification Number (TIN), ply material, and Tire Performance Criteria Specification (TPC Spec) are labeled on the sidewall. You can also find the tire size — a combination of numbers and letters that describe the:

  • Section width. A three-digit number that measures (in millimeters) the tire’s outermost most edge to its innermost edge.
  • Sidewall aspect ratio. This indicates the sidewall’s height from rim to tread as a percentage of the section width. For example, if the number is 70, that means the height is 70 percent of the tire’s width. The bigger the number, the taller the sidewall. The smaller the number, the shorter the sidewall.
  • Type of construction. There are two types of tire construction — radial and bias-ply. An uppercase R indicates radial tires. A tire labeled with an uppercase B or D represents bias-ply tires.  
  • Rim diameter. The number indicating the size (in inches) of the wheel that fits the tire.
  • Service Description. The service description includes the load index and speed rating. The load index specifies the maximum carrying capacity of the tire. The speed rating indicates the top speed a properly installed tire can reach.

Tire maintenance and safety tips

Driving on worn-out or damaged tires is dangerous and is against Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) rules. If a truck driver is caught driving on unsafe tires, the FMCSA will assign points that can majorly impact a carrier’s CSA score. Avoid violations and poor CSA scores by following these tips to keep your tires in good shape:

  • Perform a pre-trip inspection
  • Inflate to recommended PSI
  • Wash the tires and wheels
  • Get tires rotated regularly
  • Practice good driving habits

4 Inch vs. 6 Inch Lift Kit

Any lift kit turns a truck into a piece of beauty – the only issue here is that there are a lot of them out there to choose from, and that my friends makes the whole selection process fairly complicated.

On this post i will be talking about probably the most common, i.e. 4 and 6 inch kits, and guide you through on what to actually go for, from my perspective.

4 inch pros

Fits in more spots

Because the pickup isn’t lifted as high, you will be able to access more places. By that i mean garages, parking spots, car washes, etc.

This may sound stupid at first, though i can tell you that there are a ton of people who go exactly for the shorter lift because of this reason – think about it, if the thing can’t fit in the garage, where are you going to put it?

Ease of use

It’s going to take less effort to access a pickup truck that is lifted only by 4 inches, literally.

Again, this might sound weird at first, but if you’re going to be getting in and out of the cab or the bed all the time, you’re going to thank me that you went this route.

Less severe on the fuel consumption

Now i know that truck owners, especially those who already think of lifting one, probably aren’t really concerned about this, but still.

A 6 inch lift kit would require larger tires than a 4 to make the whole deal look proper, and as we all know, the bigger the tire the more power needs to be generated in order to drive it, hence the decrease in fuel economy.

Generally less expensive

The cost comes from the fact that the pickup won’t need to sport larger tires, that is, a 33 inch tire will definitely be a bit more affordable than the 35’s.

6 inch pros

More off-road

A vehicle raised by 6 inches instead of 4 inches will sit on a higher level, therefore be able to perform better in not-so-favorable conditions, even more so if it’ll have taller tires installed.

What Factors Can Cause Damage to the Tires?

Many people ask “How long do tires last on average?“

The problem is, there’s not a set answer to that question – due to the variety of factors that can lead to a necessary tire replacement. These factors include:

  • Tire design from the manufacture ( some tires are built to last 70,000 miles and other are 40,000 miles so they will have very different time in use )
  • A lack of attention to basic tire maintenance (checking the air pressure, tire rotations, alignment, visible wear, etc.)
  • Not using the right tires for different seasons and terrains.
  • Potholes, obstacles, curbs, sharp objects, and speed bumps
  • Climate conditions (extreme hot or extreme cold can accelerate wear and tear)
  • Excessive braking
  • Driving for long periods at high speeds

What You Need To Know When Choosing Aftermarket Wheels For Your Truck

Choosing Wheels For Your Truck

Since the opening of iDrive, we have built thousands of custom trucks. One of the first things we do is pick out what kind of wheel set up we are going to do on a particular truck. The three main things that we consider when choosing our wheels are: 1. Diameter/wheel size, 2. Width, and 3. Offset. These factors are very important to consider because if we decide to do a lift or a level we will be able to determine what wheels and tires will fit. On the other hand if we are going for a specific look, like a pre-runner look we know that we need to go with a smaller wheel with a high (positive or zero) offset so we can fit bigger tires. The other extreme would be a really “stanced” look, where the wheels poke out beyond the fenders. With that look, we know that the wheel is going to have a low (negative) offset and be wider than a standard aftermarket wheel.

Wheel Diameter (Size)

The size of the tire is the first thing we need to figure out. The truck example we will use for this article is an F-150 (these dimensions will change if you go to other half tons or ¾ and 1 tons). If you are planning on doing a level kit on an F-150 (or other half ton) we know that we can fit a 33” tire. If you’re going for a pre-runner/more off road look then the wheel will likely be anywhere from 16”-18” so that the sidewall of the tire is thicker. If you’re going for the “stanced” look then chances are you are going with a 20”, 22”, or 24″ wheel.

When lifting a truck, you will have many more options. We sometimes will stick to an 18” wheel and put on 35” or even 37” tires depending on the size of the lift to get a really “beefy” look. On the other hand, if we have a lift we can also squeeze bigger wheels. 24” wheels are typically the biggest that we do, but you could potentially go with a 26” if the lift is big enough, but typically the width will also increase so that is another factor to consider which we will discuss next.

Wheel Width

Standard widths go as follows: 18” diameter with a 9” width, 20” diameter with a 10” or 12” width, 22” diameter with a 10” or 12” width, 24” diameter with a 12” or 14”. These are just standard sizes, there are a few more variations, but these are the main sizes that consumers will see. There isn’t much variation with smaller wheel sizes, but when you go up to a 20” wheel then the option of going to a 12” wide is available to achieve a stanced look.

Jacked Up Truck Tires and Your Transmission

If you’re thinking about putting some nice big tires on your lifted truck, keep in mind that you must make serious changes to your transmission. Strangely, most people I’ve known who have installed monster truck tires on their lifted truck don’t make these changes. The result? They keep killing their transmissions and spending a fortune in repairs.

So when you start planning that lifted truck with an eye on some nice big tires, keep in mind you will also need to budget the appropriate transmission adjustments. Big tires kill transmissions… unless you appropriately modify the transmission in advanced for the size and weight of the new tires. And I hate to break it to you, but this transmission job ain’t cheap. So before you finish budgeting what type of lift kits you can afford, make sure you include the transmission adjustment as part of that budget.

This is also something you should keep in mind when you evaluate used jacked up trucks or any jacked up trucks for sale you find on the market. If they have larger tires than the manufacturer recommends or than what comes with the original vehicle, you need to find out if they’ve made the appropriate transmission torque ratio adjustments. If not, you’ll just be buying a 4×4 truck with a dying transmission.